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Category Archives: Highway Safety

Up in smoke or bottoms up: How policy could affect substance abuse

Up in smoke or bottoms up: How policy could affect substance abuse

Source:
Springer Science+Business Media. (2015, January 12). Up in smoke or bottoms up: How policy could affect substance abuse. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 8, 2015 from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/01/150112181317.htm
ScienceDaily Summary:
Half of young drivers who died in car crashes in American states such as California, Hawaii and West Virginia were under the influence of either alcohol or marijuana, or both. This is the story told by the statistics recording fatal road accidents involving 16- to 25-year-olds in nine US states.

Journal Reference:

  1. Katherine M Keyes, Joanne E Brady, Guohua Li. Effects of minimum legal drinking age on alcohol and marijuana use: evidence from toxicological testing data for fatally injured drivers aged 16 to 25 yearsInjury Epidemiology, 2015; 2 (1) DOI: 10.1186/s40621-014-0032-1

 

What’s the impact of marijuana on driving?

What’s the impact of marijuana on driving?

Source:
University of Iowa. (2015, June 23). What’s the impact of marijuana on driving?. ScienceDaily. Retrieved June 24, 2015 from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/06/150623180408.htm
 
ScienceDaily Summary:
Drivers who use alcohol and marijuana together weave more on a virtual roadway than drivers who use either substance independently, a new study has found. However, the cocktail of alcohol and marijuana does not double the effect of the impairment.

Journal Reference:
Marilyn A. Huestis et al. Cannabis Effects on Driving Lateral Control With and Without AlcoholDrug and Alcohol Dependence, June 2015 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.06.015

Teen driving and marijuana use: More than one in four high school seniors …

Teen driving and marijuana use: More than one in four high school seniors drive after using alcohol or drugs, or ride with a driver who has.

Source:
American Public Health Association (APHA). (2013, September 12). Teen driving and marijuana use: More than one in four high school seniors drive after using alcohol or drugs, or ride with a driver who has. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 20, 2015 from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/09/130912202847.htm

ScienceDaily Summary:
A new study finds that 28 percent of U.S. high school seniors have driven after using drugs or drinking alcohol in the past two weeks, or ridden in a vehicle with a driver who did. In particular, driving after smoking marijuana has increased over the past three years.  (“…the most recent three years have shown an increase in driving after using marijuana, which rose from 10 percent in 2008 to 12 percent in 2011.”)

Journal Reference:
Patrick M. O’Malley, Lloyd D. Johnston. Driving After Drug or Alcohol Use by US High School Seniors, 2001–2011American Journal of Public Health, 2013; e1 DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2013.301246

Simultaneous drinking, smoking marijuana increases odds of drunk driving …

Simultaneous drinking, smoking marijuana increases odds of drunk driving, social consequences and harms to self.

Source:
Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research. (2015, April 14). Simultaneous drinking, smoking marijuana increases odds of drunk driving, other. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 20, 2015 from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/04/150414212309.htm

ScienceDaily Summary:
Marijuana is becoming increasingly permitted in the US for medical and recreational use. A new study look at the relationship between alcohol and simultaneous versus concurrent marijuana use. Simultaneous users had double the odds of drunk driving, social consequences, and harms to self.

Journal Reference:
Meenakshi S. Subbaraman, William C. Kerr. Simultaneous Versus Concurrent Use of Alcohol and Cannabis in the National Alcohol SurveyAlcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 2015; 39 (5): 872 DOI: 10.1111/acer.12698

 

Medical Marijuana Laws, Traffic Fatalities, and Alcohol Consumption

October, 2012

Authors:
D. Mark Anderson
Department of Agricultural Economics and Economics Montana State University
Benjamin Hansen
Department of Economics University of Oregon
Daniel I. Rees
Department of Economics University of Colorado Denver

WTR-RI Research and Analysis Team Note:
The introductory summary of this extensive 25 page paper is quoted as follows:

To date, 17 states have passed medical marijuana laws, yet very little is known about their effects. The current study examines the relationship between the legalization of medical marijuana and traffic fatalities, the leading cause of death among Americans ages 5 through 34. The first full year after coming into effect, legalization is associated with an 8 to 11 percent decrease in traffic fatalities. The impact of legalization on traffic fatalities involving alcohol is larger and estimated with more precision than its impact on traffic fatalities that do not involve alcohol. Legalization is also associated with sharp decreases in the price of marijuana and alcohol consumption, a pattern of results consistent with the hypothesis that marijuana and alcohol are substitutes. Because alternative mechanisms cannot be ruled out, the negative relationship between legalization and alcohol-related traffic fatalities does not necessarily imply that driving under the influence of marijuana is safer than driving under the influence of alcohol.

The complete paper and 9 page bibliography can be seen at:
http://pages.uoregon.edu/bchansen/MML_Alcohol_Consumption.pdf

Marijuana use involved in more fatal accidents since commercialization of medical marijuana

Marijuana use involved in more fatal accidents since commercialization of medical marijuana

Source:  (As reported in ScienceDaily, May 15, 2014)  University of Colorado Denver. (2014, May 15). Marijuana use involved in more fatal accidents since commercialization of medical marijuana. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 21, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/05/140515173507.htm

ScienceDaily Summary:

The proportion of marijuana-positive drivers involved in fatal motor vehicle crashes in Colorado has increased dramatically since the commercialization of medical marijuana in the middle of 2009, according to a study. The study raises important concerns about the increase in the proportion of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were marijuana-positive since the commercialization of medical marijuana in Colorado, particularly in comparison to the 34 non-medical marijuana states.

Journal Reference:

Stacy Salomonsen-Sautel, Sung-Joon Min, Joseph T. Sakai, Christian Thurstone, Christian Hopfer. Trends in fatal motor vehicle crashes before and after marijuana commercialization in ColoradoDrug and Alcohol Dependence, 2014; DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.04.008

Deadly drugged driving: Drug use tied to fatal car crashes

Deadly drugged driving: Drug use tied to fatal car crashes

Source:  (As reported in ScienceDaily, June 23, 2011)  Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. (2011, June 23). Deadly drugged driving: Drug use tied to fatal car crashes. ScienceDaily.  Retrieved May 21, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/06/110623085953.htm

ScienceDaily Summary:

It’s well known that drunk driving can have fatal consequences, but a tumblr post suggests that alcohol is not the only drug that’s a danger on the road. Researchers found that of US drivers who died in a crash, about 25 percent tested positive for drugs. The most common drugs were marijuana and stimulants, including cocaine and amphetamines.

Journal Reference:

Eduardo Romano, Robert B. Voas. Drug and Alcohol Involvement in Four Types of Fatal CrashesJournal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 2011;

Drivers who test positive for drugs have triple the risk of fatal car crash

Drivers who test positive for drugs have triple the risk of fatal car crash

Source:  (As reported in ScienceDaily, September 25, 2013)  Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health. (2013, September 25). Drivers who test positive for drugs have triple the risk of fatal car crash. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 20, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/09/130925185612.htm

ScienceDaily Summary:

In a tumblr post researchers assessed the association of driver drug use, as well as the combination of drugs and alcohol, with the risk of fatal crash. They found that drug use is associated with a significantly increased risk of fatal crash involvement, particularly when used in combination with alcohol. The study provides critical data for understanding the joint effect of alcohol and drugs on driving safety.

Journal Reference:

Guohua Li, Joanne E. Brady, Qixuan Chen. Drug use and fatal motor vehicle crashes: A case-control studyAccident Analysis & Prevention, 2013; 60: 205 DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2013.09.001

New study shows cannabis effects on driving skills

New study shows cannabis effects on driving skills

Source:  (As reported in ScienceDaily, March 1, 2013)  American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC). (2013, March 1). New study shows cannabis effects on driving skills. ScienceDaily.  Retrieved May 20, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/03/130301122256.htm

ScienceDaily Summary:

Cannabis is second only to alcohol for causing impaired driving and motor vehicle accidents. In 2009, 12.8% of young adults reported driving under the influence of illicit drugs and in the 2007 National Roadside Survey, more drivers tested positive for drugs than for alcohol. These cannabis smokers had a 10-fold increase in car crash injury compared with infrequent or nonusers after adjustment for blood alcohol concentration.

Journal Reference:

M. M. Bergamaschi, E. L. Karschner, R. S. Goodwin, K. B. Scheidweiler, J. Hirvonen, R. H. C. Queiroz, M. A. Huestis. Impact of Prolonged Cannabinoid Excretion in Chronic Daily Cannabis Smokers’ Blood on Per Se Drugged Driving LawsClinical Chemistry, 2013; DOI: 10.1373/clinchem.2012.195503

 

Signs point to sharp rise in drugged driving fatalities

Signs point to sharp rise in drugged driving fatalities

Source:  (As reported in ScienceDaily, January 30, 2014)  Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health. (2014, January 30). Signs point to sharp rise in drugged driving fatalities. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 20, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/01/140130111003.htm

ScienceDaily Summary:

The prevalence of non-alcohol drugs detected in fatally injured drivers in the US steadily rose from 1999 to 2010 and especially for drivers who tested positive for marijuana. Researchers found that of 23,591 drivers who were killed within one hour of a crash, 39.7 percent tested positive for alcohol and 24.8 percent for other drugs. The prevalence of non-alcohol drugs rose from 16.6 percent in 1999 to 28.3 percent in 2010; for marijuana, rates rose from 4.2 percent to 12.2 percent.

Journal Reference:

J. E. Brady, G. Li. Trends in Alcohol and Other Drugs Detected in Fatally Injured Drivers in the United States, 1999-2010American Journal of Epidemiology, 2014; DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwt327

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