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Advocating for Evidence Based Marijuana Policy

Category Archives: Risk Factors

Adolescent Use In Spain after Legalization

Cannabis consumption initiation among adolescents: A longitudinal study

Anna Pérez  Carles ArizaFrancesca Sánchez-Martínez, Manel Nebot
Addictive Behaviors  Volume 35, Issue 2, February 2010, Pages 129–134

Corresponding author. Evaluation and Intervention Methods Service, Public Health Agency of Barcelona, Plaça Lesseps 1, 08023, Barcelona, Spain. Tel.: + 34 93 202 77 49; fax: + 34 93 292 14 43.

WTR-RI Research & Analysis Team Note:

According to the abstract for this study, “A questionnaire was administered to 2043 14–15-year-olds from Barcelona who were followed-up and re-interviewed after 15 months. … Among matched students, 23.7% of non-users at baseline had started to consume 15 months later (23.0% boys and 24.2% girls). Among those who had reported occasional cannabis use, 30.3% reported consumption during the previous month at the follow-up survey. … Cannabis initiation was facilitated by legal drug use, favorable attitudes and context-related variables.”  (underscoring ours)

The complete Abstract and access to the article are available at  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306460309002470

Some truth to the ‘potent pot myth’

Some truth to the ‘potent pot myth’

Source:  (As reported in ScienceDaily, March 18, 2014)  Wiley. (2014, March 18). Some truth to the ‘potent pot myth’. ScienceDaily. Retrieved June 9, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140318093906.htm

ScienceDaily Summary:

People who smoke high-potency cannabis end up getting higher doses of the active ingredient, new research from the Netherlands shows. Although they reduce the amount they puff and inhale to compensate for the higher strength, they still take in more of the active ingredient than smokers of lower potency cannabis.

Journal Reference:

Peggy van der Pol, Nienke Liebregts, Tibor Brunt, Jan van Amsterdam, Ron de Graaf, Dirk J. Korf, Wim van den Brink, Margriet van Laar. Cross-sectional and prospective relation of cannabis potency, dosing and smoking behaviour with cannabis dependence: an ecological study.Addiction, 2014; DOI: 10.1111/add.12508

Regular cocaine, cannabis use may trigger addictive behaviors

Regular cocaine, cannabis use may trigger addictive behaviors

Source:  (As reported in ScienceDaily, October 28, 2013)  Wiley. (2013, October 28). Regular cocaine, cannabis use may trigger addictive behaviors. ScienceDaily. Retrieved June 9, 2014 fromwww.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/10/131028100938.htm

ScienceDaily Summary:

New cocaine and cannabis research reveals that regular cannabis users have increased levels of impulsive behavior. It had previously been argued that this increased impulsivity after cannabis administration was only experienced by occasional users, but that regular users were no longer affected in this way. The results provide evidence for how drug use may trigger addictive behaviors.

Journal Reference:

J H P van Wel, K P C Kuypers, E L Theunissen, S W Toennes, D B Spronk, R J Verkes, J G Ramaekers. Single doses of THC and cocaine decrease proficiency of impulse control in heavy cannabis usersBritish Journal of Pharmacology, 2013; DOI: 10.1111/bph.12425

Parental alcohol dependence, socioeconomic disadvantage and alcohol and cannabis dependence among young adults in the community

Parental alcohol dependence, socioeconomic disadvantage and alcohol and cannabis dependence among young adults in the community

M. Melchior, M. Choquet, Y. Le Strat, C. Hassler, P. Gorwood

European Psychiatry Volume 26, Issue 1 , Pages 13-17, January 2011


We tested the hypothesis that socioeconomic disadvantage exacerbates the intergenerational transmission of substance dependence. Among 3056 community-based young adults (18–22 years, 2007), the prevalence of alcohol dependence (WHO AUDIT, 5.8%) and cannabis dependence (DSM IV criteria, 7.3%) was doubled in the presence of combined parental alcohol dependence and socioeconomic disadvantage.

The complete article is available at:


Research on marijuana’s negative health effects summarized in report

Source:  (As reported in ScienceDaily, June 5, 2014)  NIH/National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2014, June 5). Research on marijuana’s negative health effects summarized in report. ScienceDaily.

Retrieved June 10, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/06/140605093311.htm

ScienceDaily Summary:

The current state of science on the adverse health effects of marijuana use links the drug to several significant adverse effects including addiction, a review reports.  The review describes the science establishing that marijuana can be addictive and that this risk for addiction increases for daily or young users.  It also offers insights into research on the gateway theory indicating that marijuana use, similar to nicotine and alcohol use, may be associated with an increased vulnerability to other drugs.

Journal Reference:

Nora D. Volkow, Ruben D. Baler, Wilson M. Compton, Susan R.B. Weiss. Adverse Health Effects of Marijuana Use. New England Journal of Medicine, 2014; 370 (23): 2219 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra1402309

WTR-RI Research & Analysis Team Note:

The lead author of the review New England Journal of Medicine article discussed in the ScienceDaily summary is Nora D. Volkow, PhD, current director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).

For more NIDA published information on marijuana and its health consequences, go to:


What Does a Marijuana High Feel Like?

What Does a Marijuana High Feel Like?

Getting Stoned AKA Cannabis Intoxication   By Elizabeth Hartney, PhD

Updated May 16, 2014

Written or reviewed by a board-certified physician. See About.com’s Medical Review Board.

WTR-RI Research & Analysis Team Note:

Dr. Hartney’s well researched, balanced and written in lay language article describes and documents the experiential effects of marijuana.  It contains links to lay language descriptions of several key factors associated with abusive substances, including intoxication and set and setting, along with specific symptoms common to cannabis use such as hallucinations and paranoia.

Dr. Hartney’s complete on-line article posted on


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