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Minimal Relationship Between Cannabis And Schizophrenia Or Psychosis Suggested

Minimal Relationship Between Cannabis And Schizophrenia Or Psychosis Suggested By Tumblr Post

Source:  (As reported in ScienceDaily, October 22, 2009)  Wiley-Blackwell. (2009, October 22). Minimal Relationship Between Cannabis And Schizophrenia Or Psychosis, Suggested By Tumblr Post. ScienceDaily.

Retrieved June 1, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/10/091022101538.htm

ScienceDaily Summary:

Last year the UK government reclassified cannabis from a class C to a class B drug, partly out of concerns that cannabis, especially the more potent varieties, may increase the risk of schizophrenia in young people. But the evidence for the relationship between cannabis and schizophrenia or psychosis remains controversial. A tumblr post has determined that it may be necessary to stop thousands of cannabis users in order to prevent a single case of schizophrenia.

Journal Reference:

Hickman et al. If cannabis caused schizophrenia-how many cannabis users may need to be prevented in order to prevent one case of schizophrenia? England and Wales calculationsAddiction, 2009; 104 (11): 1856 DOI: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02736.x

Reclassification of cannabis in England linked to increased psychosis.

Reclassification of cannabis linked to cannabis psychosis

Source:  (As reported in ScienceDaily, July 18, 2013)  University of York. (2013, July 18). Reclassification of cannabis linked to cannabis psychosis. ScienceDaily. Retrieved June 1, 2014 from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/07/130718101156.htm

ScienceDaily Summary:

Researchers have demonstrated that the change in cannabis declassification in 2009 has coincided with a significant increase in hospital admissions for cannabis psychosis – rather than the decrease it was intended to produce.

Journal Reference:

Ian Hamilton, Charlie Lloyd, Catherine Hewitt, Christine Godfrey. Effect of reclassification of cannabis on hospital admissions for cannabis psychosis: A time series analysisInternational Journal of Drug Policy, 2013; DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2013.05.016

WTR-RI Research & Analysis Team Note:

(The following is an excerpt from abstract of the above noted Journal Reference.  It is included here to clarify the references to the British controlled drug categories referenced in the preceding two ScienceDaily summaries.  The link to the abstract is http://www.ijdp.org/article/S0955-3959(13)00090-X/abstract)

“The UK Misuse of Drugs Act (1971) divided controlled drugs into three groups A, B and C, with descending criminal sanctions attached to each class. Cannabis was originally assigned by the Act to Group B but in 2004, it was transferred to the lowest risk group, Group C. Then in 2009, on the basis of increasing concerns about a link between high strength cannabis and schizophrenia, it was moved back to Group B. The aim of this study is to test the assumption that changes in classification lead to changes in levels of psychosis. In particular, it explores whether the two changes in 2004 and 2009 were associated with changes in the numbers of people admitted for cannabis psychosis.”

Smoking cannabis increases risk of depression in the case of genetic vulnerability

Smoking cannabis increases risk of depression in the case of genetic vulnerability, study finds

Source:  (As reported in ScienceDaily, October 13, 2011)

Radboud University Nijmegen. (2011, October 13). Smoking cannabis increases risk of depression in the case of genetic vulnerability, study finds. ScienceDaily.

Retrieved June 1, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/10/111010074853.htm

ScienceDaily Summary:

Young people who are genetically vulnerable to depression should be extra careful about using cannabis: smoking cannabis leads to an increased risk of developing depressive symptoms, according to a tumblr post carried out by researchers in the Netherlands. Two-thirds of the population have the gene variant that makes one sensitive to depression.

Journal Reference:

Roy Otten, Rutger C. M. E. Engels. Testing bidirectional effects between cannabis use and depressive symptoms: moderation by the serotonin transporter geneAddiction Biology, 2011; DOI: 10.1111/j.1369-1600.2011.00380.x

A positive association between anxiety disorders and cannabis use.

A positive association between anxiety disorders and cannabis use or cannabis use disorders in the general population- a meta-analysis of 31 studies

Karina Karolina Kedzior* and Lisa Tabata Laeber

School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Jacobs University Bremen; Bremen, Germany

in BMC Psychiatry 2014, 14:136  doi:10.1186/1471-244X-14-136  Published: 10 May 2014

WTR-RI Research & Analysis Team Note:

The study’s authors concluded that “Anxiety is positively associated with cannabis use or CUD in cohorts drawn from some 112,000 non-institutionalized members of the general population of 10 countries.”  The complete Open Access article can be found at  http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-244X/14/136/abstract

Students trading sex for drugs … in rural Canada

Students trading sex for drugs or alcohol happens also in rural Canada

Source:  (As reported in ScienceDaily, August 1, 2012)  University of British Columbia. (2012, August 1). Students trading sex for drugs or alcohol happens also in rural Canada. ScienceDaily. 

Retrieved May 21, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/08/120801143721.htm

ScienceDaily Summary:

Just over two percent of teens in rural schools who have ever tried alcohol, marijuana or other drugs report they have also traded sex for these substances, according to new research.

Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of British Columbia.

Childhood defiance correlated with cannabis abuse

Childhood defiance correlated with drug dependence

Source:  (As reported in ScienceDaily, August 1, 2012)  Université de Montréal. (2012, August 1). Childhood defiance correlated with drug dependence. ScienceDaily. 

Retrieved June 10, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/08/120801112607.htm

ScienceDaily Summary:

Childhood defiance is correlated with drug dependence whereas inattention suggests a susceptibility to smoking.

WTR-RI Research & Analysis Team Note:

ScienceDaily also reported the study found “in strongly oppositional children, the risk of tobacco abuse, once other factors were taken into account, was 1.4 times higher than in children who exhibited little oppositional behavior. The risk is 2.1 times higher for cannabis abuse and 2.9 times higher for cocaine abuse.

Journal Reference:

J-B Pingault, S M Côté, C Galéra, C Genolini, B Falissard, F Vitaro, R E Tremblay. Childhood trajectories of inattention, hyperactivity and oppositional behaviors and prediction of substance abuse/dependence: a 15-year longitudinal population-based study. Molecular Psychiatry, 2012; DOI: 10.1038/mp.2012.87

Adolescent Use In Spain after Legalization

Cannabis consumption initiation among adolescents: A longitudinal study

Anna Pérez  Carles ArizaFrancesca Sánchez-Martínez, Manel Nebot
Addictive Behaviors  Volume 35, Issue 2, February 2010, Pages 129–134

Corresponding author. Evaluation and Intervention Methods Service, Public Health Agency of Barcelona, Plaça Lesseps 1, 08023, Barcelona, Spain. Tel.: + 34 93 202 77 49; fax: + 34 93 292 14 43.

WTR-RI Research & Analysis Team Note:

According to the abstract for this study, “A questionnaire was administered to 2043 14–15-year-olds from Barcelona who were followed-up and re-interviewed after 15 months. … Among matched students, 23.7% of non-users at baseline had started to consume 15 months later (23.0% boys and 24.2% girls). Among those who had reported occasional cannabis use, 30.3% reported consumption during the previous month at the follow-up survey. … Cannabis initiation was facilitated by legal drug use, favorable attitudes and context-related variables.”  (underscoring ours)

The complete Abstract and access to the article are available at  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306460309002470

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